The history of Ukraine is a long and complex one, with the region being home to a variety of different cultures and civilizations over the centuries.
The earliest recorded settlements in Ukraine date back to the Neolithic period, with the development of agriculture and the rise of early civilizations. In the 9th century, the state of Kievan Rus' was founded in the region, with Kyiv (also spelled Kiev) as its capital. Kievan Rus' was a federation of Slavic tribes, with the Varangians (Vikings) playing a significant role in its history.
In the 13th century, Kievan Rus' was conquered by the Mongols and absorbed into the Golden Horde. The Mongols ruled over much of the region for several centuries, and their influence can still be seen in the culture and history of Ukraine today.
In the late 14th and early 15th centuries, the region began to break away from Mongol rule and develop into a separate entity. The state of Kyivan Rus' collapsed, and a number of smaller states emerged in its place. In the 16th and 17th centuries, Ukraine was divided between several different powers, including the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, the Ottoman Empire, and the Russian Empire.
In the 19th and early 20th centuries, Ukraine underwent a period of modernization and industrialization, and began to push for greater autonomy and independence. In 1917, the Ukrainian People's Republic was established, but it was short-lived, and the region was eventually absorbed into the Soviet Union.
After the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, Ukraine declared its independence and became a sovereign state. Since then, it has faced many challenges as it works to build democratic institutions and a market economy.